management discussion question and need the explanation and answer to help me learn.
PLEASE PROVIDE A 2-5 paragraph discussion response for both discussion posts addressing each student and using sources.
May 23, 2023 at 2:23 PM
Interviews, questionnaires, or just plain old observation are all valid methods for carrying out job analysis. Some of the processes involved in performing a job analysis are defining the job, acquiring information, analyzing the information, and producing the work description. These phases might vary depending on the technique that is used to conduct the job analysis; nonetheless, they are all typical steps. In the field of human resource management, job analysis is an essential component since it gives information that can be put to use in decision-making regarding staffing, training, remuneration, and evaluation of performance.
HR professionals can benefit significantly from doing job analyses. They offer a methodical and unbiased approach to the data collection process on employment opportunities. This information may be used to determine the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) that are required for successful job performance. KSAO stands for knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics. Additionally, job descriptions and performance requirements may be developed with its assistance. Job analyses are one tool that may be used to assist guarantee that decisions about selection, training, and remuneration are fair and equitable. Conducting a job analysis, on the other hand, may be a time- and money-consuming endeavor. They may also be challenging to carry out if the task in question is particularly complicated or if there is insufficient information available on the job. The findings of employment analyses are sometimes open to interpretation and frequently fail to provide reliable data.
I would recommend utilizing a variety of approaches, such as interviews, observations, and a review of job descriptions and performance requirements, to conduct a job analysis in my field as IT system analyst for a bank. This will aid in gaining a thorough grasp of the work and identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required for successful job performance. The job analysis information may then be utilized to create job descriptions, performance requirements, and selection criteria. After assessing the aim of the job analysis, the amount of information necessary, the resources available, and the time restrictions, I picked these approaches. This combination of methodologies, in my opinion, will offer the most thorough and accurate information regarding the job of an IT system analyst in the banking industry.
May 24, 2023 at 1:50 PM
There are numerous ways in which data can be collected for job analysis. Some methods involve more face-to-face interaction, while others rely on surveys and questionnaires. And whether the method is focused on the work or the worker, it is always a good idea to have a mixture of both since they all have advantages and disadvantages (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011, p. 201). Three ways to gather data that involve more face-to-face interaction are conducting direct observation of the job and the job performance itself, utilizing interviews, and using a subject matter expert (SME) panel (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011, pp. 202-205).
Direct observation is, as it sounds, observing work actions and behaviors. While this does give the benefit of directly watching the work being accomplished, it is most beneficial to jobs with more standardized or manual labor-type positions (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011, p. 202). It is not the best way to collect data for more cerebral-type jobs such as lawyers or analysts (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011, p. 203). This makes sense since it is hard to observe what someone is thinking!
As for interviews, again, these are just what they sound like – interviewing an employee on what they do, including activities and behaviors associated with the job (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011, p. 205). The beauty of this data collection is that the worker is the one giving the info, so they may include information that may have been missed in more direct observation of the job (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011, p. 2005). The downside is that an interviewer needs more advanced training and needs to follow a structured interview format if it is to be done correctly (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011, p. 205). In addition, the worker being interviewed may feel like there are nefarious reasons for the interview that could affect their employment, so they may not be as forthcoming or truthful during the interview (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011, p. 205).
The last face-to-face option is the SME panel. This involves using SMEs to come up with knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) needed for future job analysis surveys or questionnaires or to get info from SMEs to show connections between tasks and KSAOs for test development or test items (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011, p. 205). This is advantageous in that you have SMEs giving you information, but it can also be a problem if you don’t have the right SMEs meaning the right experience or a mixture from across the job being looked at for analysis (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011, p. 206). As an Air Force enlisted promotion test developer, this is very true. We have specific requirements for the SMEs that are in-house when the tests are developed. And they have experience requirements that must be met in order to be part of the project. Demographics are also looked at as well.
While face-to-face is one way to gather job analysis information, surveys and questionnaires are also viable. Questionnaires can be standardized in order to have employees rate different aspects of the job; as such, they are cheaper and quicker to administer (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011, p. 206). However, that standardization comes at a cost since it can be time-consuming and expensive to make a questionnaire (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011, p. 207). In addition, there are already developed and researched questionnaires and surveys out there that could be of use, such as the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS) (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011, pp. 208 – 209).
Since I work as a test developer for the Air Force, I will talk about job analysis from that perspective. You cannot build a quality test without job analysis. While Wyse (2018) talks about a credentialing exam instead of a promotion exam, the concept is the same: job analysis connects the test content to what the test takers do in their jobs (p. 68). In citing Kane (1994), Raymond (2001 and 2016), and Raymond and Neustel (2006), Wyse (2018), notes that “the links established through job analysis are key pieces of validity evidence…” when it comes to the exam (p. 53). I could not make a valid or reliable exam without the benefits of a job analysis. We do not conduct a job analysis. That is actually done by a section strictly devoted to occupational analysis. However, we are all a part of the same organization, the Studies and Analysis Squadron.
The job analysis done is more in line with task inventories and checklists. This is the best option since there are over 130 enlisted career fields in the Air Force, and this is the most expedient method. Ultimately, a survey is sent out to a portion of a particular career field, and information is gathered. As Cascio and Aquinis (2018) note, this type of survey can provide information such as the importance of the task, the frequency of the task, the difficulty of the task, or the amount of time to learn the task (p. 206). All that information is given to me in an occupational analysis report. We use that information for what we call predicted testing importance (PTI) when it comes to making links to construct areas on the test. PTI is an equation that uses survey data based on the percentage of members performing a task, training emphasis, task learning difficulty, and the percentage of time performing the task. As you can see, these all correlate with the information noted earlier in our textbook. So, the higher the PTI, the more important that particular task is to the career field.
Finally, the job analysis doesn’t just stand on its own. We also have SMEs in-house when tests are built. They are there to validate the findings of the job analysis, and, as noted earlier, they make the connections between the KSAOs and the test items and the tasks and the test items, which is how it should be since they are the experts in their career fields. For my part, no test project starts without looking at the information from the job analysis first!
Cascio, W. F., & Aguinis, H. (2011). Applied Psychology in Human Resource Management (7th ed.). Pearson.
Wyse, A. E. (2018). Analyzing job analysis data using mixture Rasch models. International Journal of Testing, 19(1), 52–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/15305058.2018.1481853
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