history writing question and need the explanation and answer to help me learn.
Primary Source: Oliver North testimony – Iran Contra
Discussion questions: Who is Oliver North, the individual providing this testimony? What is significance of his testimony in terms of the secrets it reveals about Iran Contra? This post must be at least 175 words in length addressing straightforwardly the discussion question. Please see attached article and cite quotes from it.
Requirements: 175 WORDS
NIDAL-OfikWashington, DC 20402-EXCERPT OF COL. OLIVER NORTH’S TESTIMONYON SECURITY FENCE AND ABU Dxuments. U.S. Government Printing : 1988For sale by the Superintendent of 15-544WASHINGTON JL4NANDTHE NICARAGUAN OPPOSITIONAND THEHOUSE SELECT COMMITTEETOINVESTIGATE COVERT ARMSTRANSACTIONSWITHIRANONE HUNDREDTH CONGRESSFIRST SESSION100-7Part IJULY 7, 8, 9, AND 10, 1987TESTIMONY OF OLIVER L. NORTH(Questioning by -Counsels)Printed for the use of the Select Committees on the Iran-Contra InvestigationU.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICEBEFORE THESENATE SELECT COMMITTEE ON SECRETMILITARYASSISTANCE TO IRAN-CONTRA INVESTIGATIONJOINT HEARINGS
&ner-ad that the moneys to pay for it came from redence your went on a fence, a security system, that was put in atwas NIELDS. There has been testimony that several thousand dol-lars Mr. SW&zerland. I have never even been in a Swiss bank.0necessarilywish to become the person who had to fly back and forth to tiling to have anybody else they wantedso that we could continue the activities, but I didn’t deaq” I was more than you guys dropthem! “What happens if both with the impression that this was what I had inmind when I said to Second.TO my knowledge, he cooperated in every case with-the things thatwe asked him to do? but I never once saw those words, nor do Iwant to leave you professed to -have control over asingle penny of this. I elicited the cooperation of General Hakimand Secord, that is not foreign to you, is it?Mr. NORTH. Well I-I never sition of the funds, I don’t mean in your personal capacity, but inyour governmental capacity in the event of the death of dispoereis a second part of the document that relatessimply to control over the use of the funds, and that is on the firstpage of it, the second paragraph. And I take it that although younever saw the document, the concept that you would control %Nrxnns.e&ion.Mr. NIELDS. Understand, you have said that. I just want to sepa-rate out the issues. There is a part of the document that providesfor distribution to individuals’ estates in the event of death. It is onthe second page. I take it your testimony is that that-not onlyhave you not seen the document, but that concept is foreign to you.You never heard of anything like it.Mr. NORTH. I never heard of it before. I don’t know how muchmore clearly I can put it. Counsel, I never ever heard that proposalbefore, that sNokm. This is the first time I have ever seen this document,ever.Mr. r.n the room knows it isMr. ~xx&.~? is not a will, and any lawyer -these hearings prior to50 times in NIIZLD~. It is exhibit 169.Mr. SULLIVAN. I object to the term “will.” Mr. Chairman, I believe the term has been used SULWAN. Excuse me, Mr. Chairman, could we please have acopy of the document?Mr. tributed to the estates of the individuals is a foreign notion to you?Mr. di.s-ing that the portion of it that provides for the moneys being indicatwill, or this testamentary document. You are NIEIDS. I would like to separate out then the two issuesraised by this soever, ever, and I never heard of Buttons or Belly Buttons untilthese hearings began.Mr. whatfmancial network that had been established, Idid at some point express concern to General Secord, “Supposeboth of you guysgo down on the same airplane, flitting back andforth to Europeor wherever you are going; what happens then?”I was told, ‘Don’t worry about it, arrangements will be made sothat these operations can continue”, but nobody ever told me thata single penny was set aside for my purposes, for my benefit Hakim, became aware whathis role was in the 128Mr. NORTH. No, ever. I do want to make one point clear. I did atone point express concern after I would guess in February, March,April, somewhere after I had met Mr.
relative-this threat, and I called and I asked can you comeout and do a survey and give me an estimate, and in each case, Ithink it was two or three of them, and I was at that point &vo or three of them. It is now late April, early May, it iswithin days of z&Fo;f three or four of these companies that do that kind ofI called thing I did was to ask for a list of who installs thesethings for the U.S. Government, maybe I can get a better price bycalling them. I believe it was someone in the Secret Service gaveTehran and we didn’t want to tell the whole worldthat, that was deemed not to be an appropriate thing to do.The next thing that we looked to try tried to do was to find asecure telephone to put in my home to justify the installation of aU.S. Government security system. That too was impossible or notfeasible or couldn’t be done.The next Lejune. In that I was preparing at thetime to go to that this was a response to the attack on Libya, which we hadrun a preemptive counter-terrorist raid on Libya on the 14th ofApril, in which I had a small role to play. CBS chose to run thefilm anyway.The FBI was then contacted again and told-asked what protec-tion can be offered. The FBI correctly said “We don’t offer protec-tion. I then sought other types of protection. I went to my superiorsand said, ‘What can be done?” Contrary to what was said somedays ago, this lieutenant colonel was not offered at that time anyprotection by the Government of the United States, SenatorRudman. I asked for it, and I was told that the only thing that Icould do is to immediately PCS, permanent change of station-youand I, as Marines, know well what that means-and jerked out ofour home and sent to Camp assassination.We then made an effort over the course of several days to havethe story killed and not run in the United States-not me, but thestory-killed and not run on the U.S. media. Nonetheless, it ran,and I believe the date was the 28th of April. The initial assessmentwas Fatah Revolutionary Council, which is the name of the AbuNidal group. He targeted me for goingLto waffle an answer. I am going to sayyes and no, and if you would indulge me, I will give you anotherone of my very straightforward, but rather lengthy, answers.The issue of the security system was first broached immediatelyafter a threat on my life by Abu Nidal. Abu Nidal is, as I am sureyou on the Intelligence Committees know, the principal, foremostassassin in the world today. He is a brutal murderer. When I wasfirst alerted to that threat by the Federal Bureau of Investigationsin late April, I was simply told that there was a threat that hadbeen promulgated by Abu Bakar, who is the press spokesman forthe Secord?Mr. NORTH. I am NIJZIJX. Were you aware that that security system was paidfor by General it–[Counsel conferring with witness.]Mr. NIELDS. And I take &cord, and my question to you is, were you aware-I take itthere was a security system put in at your residence?Mr. NORTH. There is a security system in at my residence. It hassince this April been sufficiently supplemented that it is now ex-traordinary.Mr. 129al
vicious-Year% Americans will be thinking about us.” “For sheer ~8, there exists a war to the death. In the coming months and“Between Americaand Nidd himself, quoted in Der Spiegel, Ah Scout.YOU look at his whole career, Abu Nidal makes the infa-mous terrorist Carlos look like a Boy when ChristianScience Monitor.That is the ed-“is the world’s most wanted terrorist.” wound-tolast Friday’s attacks in Rome and Vienna”-that was the so-calledChristmas Massacre in which 19 people died and 200 were “Abu Nidal, the radical Palestinian guerrilla leader, linked Abu Nidal just so you know my mental state at the time.much’longer, as I amsure you know, but there will be others, if they take activist stepsto address the problem of terrorism, who will be threatened.And I would like to just, if I may, just read to you a little bit aboutMr. ving been deniedthat, and perhaps for fully legitimate reasons and if there is a lawthat prevents the protection of American Government employeesand their families from people like Abu Nidal, then gentlemen,please fix it, because this kid won’t be around chaving been-having asked for sometof U.S. Govern-ment protection for my wife and children, andI’ should beprepared to take my own life.I had already been told that the Government of the UnitedStates on an earlier proposal for a trip, might even disavow thefact that I had gone on the trip, on an earlier proposal, and we cancome back to that at some time, if you like.And so Tehran. I had already been told by Director Casey that his organization on his terms. And I want you toknow what was going through my mind. I was about to leave for$8,500 max, as I recall it was $8,000 to $8,500, and he couldfurthermore immediately install the system.Now, I want you to know that I would be more than willing-andif anybody else is watching oversees, and I am sure they are-1 willbe glad to meet Abu Nidal on equal terms anywhere in the world.OK? There is an even deal for him.But I am not willing to have my wife and my four children meetAbu Nidal or tome as a man who, one, had been a former- CIA, or perhaps I under-stood at the time FBI, I don’t remember, technical expert; a manwho owned a security company and a man who could immediatelygoout and do a survey and an estimate.He did. Over the course of the next few days, he went out to myhome, I celled my wife or told my wife, whatever, that he would beout and went through the situation. And he came up with an esti-mate of Robinette. He was introduced associate”-1 don’t remember the words;‘who is an expert. This guy has a company that does these things.And he shortly thereafter, I believe it was around the 5th ofMay, introduced me to Mr. Glenn good friend, or an to comeout and do it myself; and he said, “Don’t worry about that, I havegot a find a contractor him I couldn’t getU.S. Government protection; I couldn’t 1 raised with him this threat, and I told Secord raised withme or ly busy, I was told, “It would be several weeks before we can comeout and do an estimate and a survey, and it will be several moreweeks or months before we can complete the installation because,after all, summertime is our busy time.”At some point along in there, either General 130
b&evethat an accommodation was worked between Mr. Robinette andpened, and I don’t know exactly how it worked out, but I hapwillcover that.When I didn’t get a bill, I basically understood what had 1 lat.& and was too 1 neverasked, where is the bill, until well after it 1 didn’t ask for a bill, and I never received one. 1 never gota bill. to Tehran. I came back. binette provided it.NOW, I then went on the trip Ro-Mr. instantlY*they would respond to one of those emergency alarms. And Precautionary things to respond to the kind of terrorist alert that theyhad been briefed on by the FBI.And that is the beet that they could do, and it was at that pointwith that security system installed, it was adequate that arrangement was worked out-this wasn’t surreptitious.The Fairfax Police came out-you pays your taxes in FairfaxCounty, but you gets your money’s worth. And by golly, they cameout and they photographed the house and they did the normal alarm would ring in the central station and theFairfax Police would immediately be notified, and that would trig-ger an alarm, an was installed, it was practically-it was total-ly complete. It allowed, for example, that when my wife that’system & right, OK.When FIRz. g &cord. I am get-ting there.but–Mr. NORTH. You have already asked me the question. You askedme whether or not the money came from General NIELDS. I am going to ask you that question, em trying to tell you.Mr. to your question. You asked me where it came from, and Inext-Mr. NORTH. It is, after all, the answer to your question. It is theanswer NIE~. Wait, before you go to the immediately in-stall a security system, I said please try to keep it to the 8,000 to8,500. I am, after all, a Marine lieutenant colonel, and I live on mysalary; and he installed that system.Now, let me go to your next question, because I know it iscoming, and it deserves an answer. I never got a bill, and it is afterall–Mr. ll-yearold daughter, not perhaps a wholelot different than Natasha Simpson. And so, when Mr. Robinettetold me on or about the 10th of May that he could I have an fired anextra burst at her head just in case.Gentlemen, tasha Simpson to her knees, deliberately zeroed in and Na-11-year-old American I do not wish to overdramatize this-but the AbuNidal terrorists in Rome who blasted the Nidal did in theChristmas Massacres. One of the people killed in the ChristmasMassacre-and can provide for you that shows what Abu Nidal does not deny these things. We also have an exhibitthat we Abu years.2 persons, and wounded more than 200, in 181 have killedas many as 500, his followers, who number an estimated XlOtX% that overstatement,Abu Nidal, not exactly an partment summary on Defor insertion in the record, but the State wecan make available Dem-tment, and we have copies of these that SWJZ own Our t.eri-orism.”Newsweek.Nidal has few rivals in the underworld of ness, Abu 131
regula-tions, I don’t know.UP to it and didn’t. Whether it is because of laws or stepped yourchildren with you, you run out of options in a big hurry. I ran outof options.I think the Government of the United States should havecould happen when somebodylike that is out to kill you and doesn’t care if he takes out which are sitting in this room right now, some ofwhom are at my home right now, some of whom drive me aroundin an armored motorcade that makes it look like a European poten-tate.But the fact is I am grateful for that assistance beyond measure,because when you think about what money? or I don’t knowwhose money, was put in and supplemented enormously by thefolks, some of Hakim’s &cord’s money,or the Enterprise’s money, or Mr. Robinette with General Naval Investigative Serv-ice of Naval Intelligence, got together and immediately put securi-ty on me and my home, where my wife and children are protected.I can’t tell you how grateful I am for that. The security systemthat was installed by Mr. This year-these things kind of come in Aprils, Iguess-but this April the FBI called again. This April the FBIcalled and told me that there was another threat on my life. Thebig difference was this year I was back with a band of brothersthat has a long reputation for taking care of its own. And the U.S.Marine Corps and the Naval Intelligence, Robinette. It was not an exercise in good judg-ment.I don’t believe I have any particular monopoly on bad judgment.I think it was a gross error in judgment for this committee to putmy home address up on the screen for the whole world to see,when I have got 20 security agents guarding my wife, my childrenand me right now.I would also like to point out that it is not quite as bad as origi-nally seemed. probably the grossest misjudgment that I have made in my life. I thentried to paper over that whole thing by sending two phony docu-ments back to Mr. Alright? The bills came with the old original dates, and I thinkthere was another bill with a later date on it.And then, as I told you yesterday, I was going to tell you thetruth, the good, the bad and the ugly, this is the truth, I did an old hand in the CIA.Robihette is bill.I got a bill. In fact, I got two of them. I didn’t ask that they bebackdated, but after all, Mr. just didn’t look right, and that was that for the first time inmy life, I had accepted something that I had not paid for, and eventhough I honestly believe that the Government of the UnitedStates should have paid for it, should have put it in, I then pickedup the phone and asked for a 5H years of my work, and I am proud of that work.I believe that we accomplished a lot. But there was one thingthat contemplatethe previous dmer& when I left. There was a lot of work to bedone, and one of the things that I did was to sit and Sk&ding besidesthe least, a busy time. There were other things to be done SaYto gift out of that security system, that Idid not pay for.When I came to the end of my tenure at the NSC, it was, &cord to make a 132General
a~ranged?that Was How COIT~~~Y- type typewriter that don’t the l&.eEfrom three there are Nm. The second one exhibit 173, Mr. truth,even when it hurts, OK? They are phony.You the documents. I have admitted to that. I am here to tell phonybotb they are 3 different days, but they were typed on two differ-ent days or maybe even think NORTH. No. Actually I day?Mr. both typed on the same YOU aresaying is that they were exhibits 172 and 1’73, I take it what now to Turning NIELDS. OK.0:Mr. ~86. I knowthat that issue came up and was dismissed.NORTXX I don’t recall whether-which one it Lejeune?Mr. Poindexter or Mr. McDaniel whotold you that you could be transferred to Camp Nnzus. That was Admiral Thus, there were no answers.Mr. ‘h4u-mto go who was it that you asked at the White House?Mr. NORTH. I asked Admiral Poindexter and I was referred toMr. McDaniel. I was then-it was then suggested that there is onlytwo things that can be done, you can either get a secure phone-wecan find a secure telephone and put it in your home, and use thatto justify a installation of the security system.Well, for whatever reason, no secure telephone could be found.And I am not-it may well be the case, I don t know.I was also told that the other alternative was immediate PCS toCamp Lejeune or another military installation, which did not seementirely practical, given that I was getting ready to Nnzns. ecessarily, by the way, saying that I think they shouldhave, because it is clearly not within their jurisdiction to do so. Itis up to you whether you change that jurisdiction, I suppose.But I then asked if there was anything that could be done at theWhite House.Mr. pr;~~n~~$ection. And they indeed are not.NIELDS. Before I get to the document, who was it that youmade the request for security to and who turned you down?Mr. NORTH. Well, I went to-first of all, I asked the FBI whatthey could do about it, and the FBI told me–and I have sincechecked and I was since told this again this April when they calledabout a threat this spring-that the FBI is not in the business ofwrote and backdated are exhibit 172 and exhibit 173.Mr. NORTH. Yes.Mr. YOU N~IJX. The documents which I believe you had reference tothat NORTH. I will make my second answer shorter.Mr. .you, Colonel North.I need to ask you one other question on this subject.Mr. N~LDS. Thank guys ought to writehim a check, because the Government should have done it to beginwith.Thank you, sir.Mr. you you, General Secord-and second of all, %ord-firstof all, thankalSo suggest to you that if it was General$8,000, didn’t learn until the hear’started it was more-1was !&cord who paid the bill, whatever it was-1 thought italso suggesting to you, gentlemen, that if it wasGeneral m paper it over, and I am willing to sit here and admit tothat. But I am wha.t Ithen did 133I admit to making a serious, serious judgment error in
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